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What Does The 2nd Amendment Mean?

January 24, 2013 by  

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.—Amendment II

Some of the recent attacks on the 2nd Amendment and lawful gun owners by the gun grabbers have focused on the meaning of the words in the Amendment. Particularly, gun grabbers have zeroed in on what the Founding Fathers meant by the words “well regulated Militia.”

So what did the Founders mean when they penned and approved those words? As Thomas Jefferson suggested in a letter to William Johnson, “On every question of construction (of the Constitution) let us carry ourselves back to the time when the Constitution was adopted, recollect the spirit manifested in the debates, and instead of trying what meaning may be squeezed out of the text, or invented against it, conform to the probable one in which it was passed.”

According to An American Dictionary of the English Language, Vol. II by Noah Webster, published in 1828, the definition of “regulated” is this: “adjusted by rule, method or forms, put in good order, subjected to rules or restrictions.”

The Random House College Dictionary (1980) gives one more definition dating from 1690 and relating to troops: “properly disciplined.”

So well regulated, to the Founders, meant a group of troops put in good order and properly disciplined. So who were these troops?

The word “militia” is a Latin abstract noun meaning “military service,” not an “armed group,” and that is how the Latin-literate Founders used it. The collective term for army or soldiery was “volgus militum.” So they did not mean a standing army or a regular national guard.

The Militia Act of 1792 further defines it as the whole people, particularly, “every able-bodied man” from age 18 to 45.

Remember that the Founding Fathers had just participated in a bloody revolution. They feared a standing army. When there was a need for an “army,” men came from the surrounding area, bringing whatever weapons they possessed, to be led by a man or men with previous military service. Sometimes the State provided them with weapons, ammunition, horses, etc., if they did not have their own.

As Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts put it: “What, Sir, is the use of a militia? It is to prevent the establishment of a standing army, the bane of liberty…. Whenever Governments mean to invade the rights and liberties of the people, they always attempt to destroy the militia, in order to raise an army upon their ruins.”

In his An Examination of the Leading Principles of the Federal Constitution, 1787, Webster wrote: “Before a standing army can rule, the people must be disarmed; as they are in almost every kingdom of Europe. The supreme power in America cannot enforce unjust laws by the sword; because the whole body of the people are armed, and constitute a force superior to any band of regular troops that can be, on any pretence, raised in the United States.”

Tench Coxe described the militia this way: “Who are the militia? Are they not ourselves? Is it feared, then, that we shall turn our arms each man against his own bosom? Congress shall have no power to disarm the militia. Their swords, and every other terrible implement of the soldier, are the birth-right of an American … The unlimited power of the sword is not in the hands of either the federal or state governments, but where I trust in God it will ever remain, in the hands of the People.”

In a speech at the Virginia Ratifying Convention, George Mason said: “I ask, Sir, what is the militia? It is the whole people. To disarm the people is the best and most effectual way to enslave them.”

“A militia when properly formed are in fact the people themselves … and include… all men capable of bearing arms. … The mind that aims at a select militia, must be influenced by a truly anti-republican principle,” wrote Richard Lee as The Federal Farmer.

“[W]hereas, to preserve liberty, it is essential that the whole body of the people always possess arms, and be taught alike, especially when young, how to use them; nor does it follow from this, that all promiscuously must go into actual service on every occasion. The mind that aims at a select militia, must be influenced by a truly anti-republican principle; and when we see many men disposed to practice upon it, whenever they can prevail, no wonder true republicans are for carefully guarding against it,” Lee also wrote.

“O sir, we should have fine times, indeed, if, to punish tyrants, it were only sufficient to assemble the people! Your arms, wherewith you could defend yourselves, are gone; and you have no longer an aristocratical, no longer a democratical spirit. Did you ever read of any revolution in a nation, brought about by the punishment of those in power, inflicted by those who had no power at all?” said Patrick Henry during the Virgina Ratifying Convention.

It’s clear the Founders intended that everyone be armed — not just for hunting or for self-defense, which were givens, but to protect themselves from tyranny.

Finally, what is meant by “infringed”? Again, back to An American Dictionary of the English Language, this time Volume I:

“Infringed—Broken; violated; transgressed.”

Further, infringe is defined: “To break, as contracts; to violate, either positively by contravention, or negatively non-fulfillment or neglect of performance. A prince or a private person infringes an agreement or covenant by neglecting to perform its conditions, as well as by doing what is stipulated not to be done. To break to violate; to transgress; to neglect to fulfill or obey; as to infringe a law. To destroy or hinder; as to infringe efficacy.”

Liberty lovers should see the 2nd Amendment as inviolate. Not only will the laws being proposed by the gun grabbers infringe on the 2nd Amendment; but many, if not most, of the laws already on the books infringe on the Amendment as well.

The 2nd Amendment does not grant Americans the “right to keep and bear arms.” That right is held by all at birth. What it does is acknowledge that right and restrict any infringement upon it.

The Constitution and Bill of Rights was written to restrain government, not the people.

Bob Livingston

is an ultra-conservative American and author of The Bob Livingston Letter™, founded in 1969. Bob has devoted much of his life to research and the quest for truth on a variety of subjects. Bob specializes in health issues such as nutritional supplements and alternatives to drugs, as well as issues of privacy (both personal and financial), asset protection and the preservation of freedom.

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  • Buster the Anatolian

    Excellent Mr Livingston. It is too bad those who want “reasonable gun control” cannot and will not see that which you so clearly state.

    • Vicki

      Agreed. Well written and to the point.

      One part in particular
      “Liberty lovers should see the 2nd Amendment as inviolate. Not only will the laws being proposed by the gun grabbers infringe on the 2nd Amendment; but many, if not most, of the laws already on the books infringe on the Amendment as well.”

      This is why I have been saying STOP punishing the innocent rather than don’t punish the innocent. It is not just for what they plan in the near future but for ALL the infringements currently on the books.

    • Hedgehog

      Agreed Buster, but I must add that the only “reasonable gun control” that I accept is the ability to hit what you shoot at!

      • Vicki

        That is the actual meaning of the 2 words. But when you add “laws” to the phrase it becomes violations of the 2nd Amendment and violations of peoples right to possess things obtained without theft or fraud.

      • Paul

        @Hedgehog…That is why we have gun ranges. Practice makes perfect.

  • Vicki

    Lessons in the 2nd Amendment and why people really do “need” scary looking guns.

  • Vicki

    Why do people fear certain inanimate objects?

  • Warrior

    After listening to the “progressive” mouth piece yesterday, it was abundantly clear that 2nd amendment “rights” are promoted aggressively by “progressives” throughout “northern africa”. Pssst, I think they also push “assault weapons” as well, but that will be our secret.

  • Dr Richard Wright Hogeland

    The Supreme Court in the Heller Case – established that individuals have a right to “Keep and bear Arms – it is distinctly separate from the militia
    Again I will state – the Second Amendment did not create a new right – it incorporated the right to keep and bear arms in the natural law- as to mtjhe types of guns – it certainly covers all weapons – used for sef defense – hunting and the military!

    • Douglas Morris

      I have read the Consitution, Bill of Rights, Articlses of the Confederarcy, writings of Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, Adams: Sam and John, Mason, Madison and others over the last 10 years. or so, since first fully reading the Patriot Act and then finding out we were borrowing money from the CHICOMS..I decided I needed an education on the founding.

      TO a Man, the Founders were pro gun and felt every man should bear arms in defense of self and others and our newly minted country.
      That the MILITIA was made of ALL Able Bodied Men and that they were to be armed in comparable weaponry to the common foot soldier of the day.
      Musket, ball, powder, short sword or bayonet, 3 days ration, and a side are if they could afford it.
      Cannon were privately owned by ship owners, plantation owners, and other society members of wealth and they were required to have it ready, able and drilled in the use of the cannon while supplying weapons for employee’s and slaves should the need arrise, IE an oppressive force attacked the mainland or ships at sea.
      We had No standing army, no national guard, and WE the People were in charge of defense of the homeland and still are today.

      200 years ago musket and ball were the standard weapon of the foot soldier of the day, the AR15/AK47 and 30 rd mags fill that same standard for the common foot soldier of today.

      • realsustainability

        Well said, Diug! It simply amazes me how very educated people with Masters and Law degrees can’t get these very simple documents. They weren’t meant to be interpreted beyond what they actually say.Trying to do so really shows the true motivation of those who challenge them. Even a marginally researched self-proclaimed liberal can’t miss the intent. It just underscores the absolute distain our elected “leaders” have for the Constitution these days. Go ahead, swear on a stack of Bibles to defend & uphold the Constitution and then ignore it. That only creates distain for those that do it. If that’s the kind of leadership we have in this country it’s no wonder our kids don’t know right from wrong. They have fine examples to follow!

    • redhawk

      As I recal the Heller case upheld the Second Ammendment right of indiviidual gun ownership by a 5-4 vote. What were the 4 who voted against it thinking? The meaning AND intent are about as clear as anything gets!

      • Wellarmed

        Last time I checked redhawk two of the Presidents last appointments to SCOTUS lied straight face under oath, on camera, and in front of ALL the American People who actually still give a crap about our country.

        These confirmation hearings have become and absolute joke. I find it interesting that none of our elected officials wish to project a “litmus test” to any potential applicant, yet the President has the Balls to ask Generals if they are willing to fire upon the American People who they are sworn to protect.

        Settled law or any other answer means nothing to these people, as it seems that they will say what they need to get their appointment, and do what they wish after they are seated.

        There should be a provision where by Justices can be prosecuted by a jury of their peers ( the people )in the event they have disparaged their testimony under oath during their confirmation hearings. A guilty verdict should render their seat open to a new potential appointment.

        This issue must be addressed if there is EVER another constitutional convention. It may be a moot subject if states begin to leave the union.

        The Band is still playing, but the ships keeps sinking!

  • Joseph Lapierre

    It isn’t adults that have killed school children, it is children. There is a problem with guns in this country. The problem is the parents. You should be aware what the Missouri legislature has just enacted. It passed a law that lays the responsibility on parents. Parents who allow their children access to their firearms are the ones that should be put on trial. It is not killer movies or games it is the parents who allow children to absorb such things when they know that their children are not emotionally mature enough to absorb the likes of such stuff.

    • realsustainability

      Well, in the Sandy Hook tragedy, the parent of record was the first casulty. Perhaps the problem IS with the parents but when we have a government that is pushing social change so fast some folks can’t coe up to speed as fast as others. They become unsettled in their mind and spirit and all sorts of acting out occur. Rapid social change = discontent (at least). It’s not a huge step to blame the perpetrators of the social unrest for the violence. And who would that be?

    • Nadzieja Batki

      Parents are not raising children they just birthed them and then passed on the raising to the teachers and change agents of the nurseries and schools. Pass the blame to the real culprits.

    • Vicki

      Joseph Lapierre says:
      “”It isn’t adults that have killed school children, it is children.”

      Your definition of children is suspect. Just the 4 most recent examples
      2012 Sandy Hook 20
      2012 Chardon High School 18
      2007 Virgina tech 23
      2006 Amish School House 32

      They did all occur in GUN FREE ZONES.

      - Joseph Lapierre: “There is a problem with guns in this country.”

      There is indeed a problem with guns. Not enough people are allowed to exercise their CONSTITUTIONALLY PROTECTED RIGHT to keep and BEAR arms.

      - Joseph Lapierre: “The problem is the parents.”

      Since the progressives have forbidden corporal punishment why do you blame the parents?
      Do you have a “thing” for punishing the innocent?

      • joelapp

        Parents are our first teachers, then follow school teachers. Until a child leaves the home it is the responsibility of the parent to see to it that a child grows up into a responsible adult. Many think those responsibilities were taken away from parents. This country was based on God’s Laws. Go see what He says about bringing up children. Are we a God fearing country or not! There are many children, in this country, that with their fathers, grandfathers and on and on that are responsible people. They are in the majority. When I mentioned children I should have pointed out that I consider some senior citizens as children because they never grew up emotionally. That goes back to the parents for the most part.
        There is a lot of lip service going around about all this and I agree we should be aware, but until someone comes to my house to take my firearms the 2nd amendment and the constitution are still in force. This gun control thing is NOT going to pass. There are still too many of us WWII survivors around to allow it.

      • Vicki

        JoeLapp writes:
        “There are many children, in this country, that with their fathers, grandfathers and on and on that are responsible people. They are in the majority.”

        Yes we are and we have a statistic to define “many”.


        - JoeLapp: “This gun control thing is NOT going to pass. There are still too many of us WWII survivors around to allow it.”

        It passed in 1994 when there were even more of you. Why do you think the elite will listen now?

        We need to tell ALL the people that they are being punished like children for the actions of a few. We need everyone to tell Congress that:


        STOP PUNISHING THE INNOCENT for the actions of a few.

        STOP IT
        STOP IT NOW

  • We the people…

    Thank you! Very well written! This neeeds to be published our newspapers. Sadly, many people do not know this!

    • Joseph Lapierre

      Please forward to VP of the NRA, after all his name is the same as mine (no relation)

  • Bill

    Great column, Bob
    As always, you hit the nail on the head

  • carolinerh

    One word: Excellent! or as my husband who escaped after living under nazism and communism said: America’s forefathers were the smartest men ever and our Constitution and Bill of Rights prove it. Anything else is plain and simple tyranny! Gee, when will the liberals, Demos and Obama butt suckers really learn, hopefully before it really is too late and that looks to be a lot sooner than we would like now with Obama back and his takeover America policies. and his “own” military (after firing 5 great generals because they did not agree with him), his “camps” and FEMA.

  • Chester

    Carolinerh, perhaps you need to take a good look at why said generals were relieved of duty. Seems it had nothing to do with their political beliefs, unless you know of a party that approves sleeping with every woman you take a liking for, whether SHE wants to or not, drinking yourself under the table when no one else can keep up with you, and otherwise showing a lack of fitness for command. Seriously, take that good, hard look, then tell us truthfully that these are people YOU want leading our troops. Although, if they were dismissed for disagreeing with the commander in chief, for sure they aren’t the first, nor will they be the last. Take a good look at General Douglas MacArthur’s career and tell me he didn’t get sidetracked more than once for disagreeing with his boss, and taking action on his personal beliefs rather than his orders.

    • Wellarmed

      Any General that may have committed a sexual assault should be relieved of command during an investigation phase, and if sufficient evidence exist they should also be subject to court marshal as any other enlisted personal.

      The fact that they could continue to collect their pension after a guilty verdict is rendered is not only a disgrace but in effect a second battery upon the victim in my eyes.

      If our President asked any service personal a litmus test as a requirement for the position of general that included a hypothetical ( inferred ) or direct statement that clearly implied his intention to fire upon the American People then I believe that he has meet the threshold for impeachment from office.

      Anyone with knowledge of these events should immediately be sent a subpeona requesting their testimony before congress, and if substantiated impeachment proceedings be implemented at once.

      What do any of you think the odds of Justice being rendered are? Contact your congress person and insist that an investigation be opened if there is ANY evidence to these claims what so ever.

  • RW113

    Excellent. We need to be ever vigilant in preserving the Constitution, it is all that stands between us and tyranny. It is predicted that Obama will be able to appoint up to 4 Supreme Court Justices in the next 4 years, sharply shifting the 5-4 balance to 3-6. As we have all been taught since the days of our founding fathers, the US can only be destroyed from within.

    • Paul

      @RW113…Thats why we need to empeach that biscuit eater now, before we no longer have the power as a free people.

  • Rob

    I believe that 545 copies of this article need to be sent to the 545 people who are responsible for the “governing” this country 100 to the Senate, 435 to the HOR, nine to the SCOTUS, and one to the POTUS… Make it 596- one to the VPOTUS and one to the gov. of each state.

  • AZ-Ike

    Excellent article, Bob.
    I received an email yesterday with an excellent powerpoint presentation on the 2nd Amendment and gun control by John Santanen. I could not find a way to copy the link to this comment and will try sending it to you at I hope you will be able to make it available to your readers. It is one that should be continually sent throughout the United States until everyone has seen it.

  • CommonSense4America

    All I can say is,,,if the gun grabbers come to my house for my guns,,,they will not have to worry if their retirement funds will outlast them.

    • Paul

      @CommonSense4America…You know…I really hope it never comes to that. Sit back and imagine for a moment what that really means. During the Civil War, there were many saying the same thing about what side they were going to fight on. Each side was just as passionate as the other regarding the cause. Just as passionate as we are today about the government and its gun control efforts. Friends fought against friends, brothers against brothers, sons against fathers, uncles, ect;ect. Thats why i feel so strongly about empeaching this present administration before this comes to a head. Many families have sons, daughters, fathers, mothers, uncles in the military and law enforcement agencies. If the government should proceed as we suspect and fear, imagine the horror that could possibly occur. It could get real ugly real quick.

    • Dave67

      Thats not what is being proposed by Obama but continue if it jakes you feel all strong inside.

  • Liberterian

    It is sad that most people do not understand what they profess to support. Wonderful to hear your voice upon the matter, Bob Livingston. The entire reality of the constitution is under siege by our government, not only the 2nd Amendment that was given to the people to preserve the constitution. We must understand what we stand for and be prepared to fight for it. Not only with our guns, but with our brain, and will, to die for that which we stand. Let us not be driven by the lies of the self professed prophets whom seek to chain us with there deceptions. Don’t forget the patriot act and all the technology being given to the police to control our lives in the name of comfort, in the name of false safety. Don’t forget Waco and the many attrocities of intrusive government. Let’s leave to our children the wonderful gifts bestowed upon us and slay the dragons that come in the wake of this deciet. The 2nd Amendment stands for Freedom From Tyranny.

  • Adolf Schmidt

    I agree with everyone of you so far! I’m glad to see Eddie has not found this article yet, it’s much nicer to not have to dodge the BS!

    • Vicki

      He and most of the other “usual suspects” seem to be hiding cause they have not found a useful counter to the self evident truth that


      and we are tired of being punished for it.

      We want them to STOP PUNISHING THE INNOCENT for the actions of a few.

      STOP IT

      • joelapp

        My last comment. You want to know where the blame really belongs. It belongs to the people as a nation. This country was founded on God’s laws. These are being broken more and more every day. God is bringing this country down because of this. What better way could he use to do this than to allow an Obama to do it for him! Amen!

      • Vicki

        joelapp says:
        “My last comment.”


        - joelapp: “You want to know where the blame really belongs. It belongs to the people as a nation.”

        You sound just like the progressives that want to punish the innocent.

        - joelapp: “This country was founded on God’s laws. These are being broken more and more every day. God is bringing this country down because of this.”

        God’s laws contain the punishment when you break them. He does not need to punish separately.

        - joelapp: “What better way could he use to do this than to allow an Obama to do it for him! Amen!”

        Why do you sound more like an agent provocateur than a religious man?

  • David169

    Actually the mechanism for and a well regulated militia exists today. It is now the Civilian Markmanship Program (CMP) and was formarly the Director of Civilian Markmanship (DCM). This is an organization started by the US Army that is now non military. This organization promotes marksmanship with service rifles that the military currently stocks ammunition for. Presently that is the M-1 Garand, the M-1A (7.62X51) and the AR-15 (5.56mm). They also hold the National Matches every year at Camp Perry. They sell surplus rifles and ammunition to the public for training and competitions.
    I am delighted to see that the AR-15 has been made so popular by the Democrat’s threats. If we are ever called to defend out country or Constitution beside trained soldiers they can be assured we are trained in safety and marksmanship. The AR-15 is not selective fire like the M-16 or M-4 however it uses the same ammunition and magazines. Our entire military would be pressed to field 1,000,000 soldiers. Since Obama was first elected the public has purchased an estimated 28 million AR-15s and billions of cartridges. I believe the well regulated militia exists on a scale that is beyond imagination.

    • derrell

      It is nice to know the majority are of us are armed it will lesson the chance of enslavement which always comes from tyrannts.Syria comes too mind 20,000 died before the guns started filtering in from across the boraders

  • R. Fine

    One thing for sure is that a) blowing away children in their classroom, b) mass murdering patrons at a movie theatre, c) shooting up citizens in a shopping mall, d) blasting those at prayer in a temple, and e) mowing down passengers on a commuter train are NOT part of a well regulated militia.

    • Vicki

      Quite true which is why I keep telling the progressives/liberals that


      and we are tired of being punished for it.

      We want them to STOP PUNISHING THE INNOCENT for the actions of a few.

      STOP IT

      • R. Fine

        And the majority want to take heavy military grade weaponry off the shelves so the nuts can’t ever get their hands on them. And having nation wide background checks is also kind of a clever idea.

      • Vicki

        R. Fine says:
        “And the majority want to take heavy military grade weaponry off the shelves so the nuts can’t ever get their hands on them.”

        Good luck with that. (I am presuming you were not taking military grade firearms from the military)

        - R. Fine: “And having nation wide background checks is also kind of a clever idea.”

        For spending taxpayer money on a politician’s pet project. Here is a COST-FREE way to tell.

        Buyer is standing in the store. Buyer is not in jail therefore they can buy stuff.
        (liberals will have a blast with this one. Btw think gasoline)



        STOP IT
        STOP IT NOW

      • Dave67

        Again I will ask the question Vicki;

        What should the government and society do to reduces the levels of gun-violence in this country?

        All you ever have is slogans…

        Trying thinking of solutions or are you going to avoid the question like last time?

        • joelapp

          Don’t waste your time with Vickie, she isn’t worth it.

      • Dave67

        I know Joe, Vickie is a right wing parrort. She is incapable of having a resonable discussion about reducing gun violence in America.

        All the gun nuts have is what the NRA told them which is “more guns” are the solution and that “gun free” zones set up the massacres. Which of course is BS.

        Lets compare MA and AZ

        AZ has lax gun laws, allow conceal and carry, less population than MA

        AZ has the higher crime rate with guns.

        The gun nuts do not want to deal with the real issues… They do not care how many have to die, they want nothing done which is what their NRA masters instructed. Wayne LaPierre is laughing his fat butt off at these idiots that give him more money to live his 6 figure American dream through membership dues. The gun nuts are these most scared bunch of rabbits in the country. Fear and ignorance are what keeps conservative people in the club.

  • GiveMeLiberty

    I teach my kids that “the 2nd PROTECTS the 1st”!

  • Michael Guy

    Every Roman Dictator since Julius Caesar kept up the pretext of a Roman republic by affixing the letters SPQR to their tyrannical decrees; For the Senate and the People of Rome. The Roman tribunes and Senators were as ineffectual and vestigial after Cicero as our legislators seem to be. WE have a Socialist Sun King who can recite Louis XIV with equal vehemence, “Etate c’est moi” “I am the state”. This Administration armed Mexican drug lords in Fast and Furious. The drug lords make their millions because this administration gives welfare, SSI and EBT to addicts. This administration extorts tax money from you and then gives it to parasites in the HHS welfare society so that these Obama voters will enhance the profits of violent drug gangs. So not only is tax money or loaned money from China filtered through to the vicious drug cartels, but Eric Holder even armed these gangs with the same weapons he wants to confiscate from conservative, capitalist, Constitution-loving, law-abiding American citizens. Add to this hypocrisy, the financial aid and arms sent to the Sunni Jihadist in the Muslim Brotherhood and you can see this Democratic Administration wants to arm Saudi-controlled, Arab Spring” Sunni terrorist who will be killing Shia, Christians , Jews and socialists throughout the world, including America. But this Administration and its Democrats want to abrogate and nullify our social contract, i.e. the Constitution with its Bill of Rights and then confiscate property to which citizens are entitled, especially the arms and ammunition owned by Christian, conservative, capitalist, Constitution-loving, Caucasians. Is this to make us subject serfs in a global Holy Roman Empire, ruled by elite liberal lords, Bolshevik bureaucrats and progressive plutocrats in the UN?

  • Raymond Carl Hardie

    Michael Guy you have written a very informative post to this article and I say thank you ! I can’t for the life of me understand the actions of our government in the constant exploiting of any tragedy to destroy our Constitution and Bill-of-Rights for the sake of instituting a socialist agenda totally against the very intent and spirit of those principles of which our forefathers bequeathed to us, and which have worked well since our founding inspite of our failures along the way to adhere to those documents and the results of such failures in bringing violent upheavels among the citizens to force necessary corrections, ie; Daniel Shays Rebellion, States Rights ( 10th Amendment ), Emancipation and eventual eventual civil war, and these events are memorable because they reflect what happens when government becomes dictatorial in scope and function such as the courts upholding the right of a government paper currency which can be inflated and manipulated by the banks with impunity and cause the system to work against the public good by allowing the seizure through foreclosure of private property by a fiat manipulated system such as happened to Daniel Shays and the farmers who joined him in storming federal court houses and making citizens arrest of federal judges . Then there is the issue of a Supreme Court system which in the Dred Scott Case, upheld the right of slavery to exist, thereby laying the ground work for an eventual civil war upon which the same supreme court afterwards denounced slavery, they are not God and they should stop trying to be God, for two reasons, one: They are not good at it, and two: The job is already taken! No where in the Constitution was slavery ever mentioned or alluded to as any right or legality of possession, the common understanding of the Bible in that day was enough to bear witness of the fact that it was wrong and by the supreme court codifying it under the guise of property for the sake of taxes and revenues is ludicrous. If that was any indicator of how these nine people are motivated by personal opinions rather than following Constitutional guidelines, think about the Affordable care Act and they ruled it legal as a tax because they could not rule the government law legal in mandating that we the public must purchase something which is really what they have done and they are relying on the ignorance of the public in general to allow it! The big pharmacutical companies and the Insurance companies have been given a law to make them rich at your and mine expense. The end result of this supreme court decision and the truth about how it will not make our medical system better, and all the financial loop holes for the benefit of the insurance and pharmacutical lobby will become known and we will see if the people when financially broken to the point of despair finally rise up when no other option is left to them for redress of grieviences as the congress who was to represent them , represented the corporate interest instead of the people and the Constitution.

  • Dave67

    The “whole” people? And who are the people elected to represent the “whole” people?

    The government.

    Case closed….

  • Dan Mancuso

    You write; “The 2nd Amendment does not grant Americans the ‘right to keep and bear arms’. That right is held by all at birth. What it does is acknowledge that right and restrict any infringement upon it.”
    Aside from the very clear meaning of the 2nd Amendment itself, these words are the most important I have heard on the subject. Inherant rights, God given rights cannot be given or taken away. Gun owners need to internalize these words. Gun grabbers need to have these words shoved down their traiterous throats!

    • R.F.

      Do you have a reading problem? What the Founders wrote was that as part of a well regulated militia people have the right to bear arms. The Founders do not grant that right to any Tom, Dick, or Harry who wants to blow away a classroom full of little children. And, by the way, god does not grant gun licenses to Americans or anyone else. Where on earth did you get that notion from?


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