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List of Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winners

STOCKHOLM, Sweden, Oct. 3 (UPI) -- List of Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winners:

2011 -- Bruce A. Beutler, United States; Jules A. Hoffman, Luxembourg; Ralph M. Steinman, Canada

2010 -- Robert Edwards, Great Britain

2009 -- Elizabeth H. Blackburn, United States; Carol W. Greider, United States; Jack W. Szostak, United States

2008 -- Harald zur Hausen, Germany; Francoise Barre-Sinoussi, France; Luc Montagnier, France

2007 -- Mario R. Capecchi, United States; Martin J. Evans, United Kingdom; Oliver Smithies, United States

2006 -- Andrew Z. Fire, United States; Craig C. Mello, United States

2005 -- Barry J. Marshall, Australia; J. Robin Warren, Australia

2004 -- Richard Axel, United States; Linda B. Buck, United States

2003 -- Paul C. Lauterbur, United States; Peter Mansfield, United Kingdom

2002 -- Sydney Brenner, United Kingdom; H. Robert Horvitz, United States; John E. Sulston, United Kingdom

2001 -- Leland H. Hartwell, United States; Tim Hunt, United Kingdom; Paul Nurse, United Kingdom

2000 -- Arvid Carlsson, Sweden; Paul Greengard, United States; Eric R. Kandel, United States

1999 -- Gunter Blobel, United States

1998 -- Robert F. Furchgott, United States; Louis J. Ignarro, United States; Ferid Murad, United States

1997 -- Stanley B. Prusiner, United States

1996 -- Peter C. Doherty, Australia; Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Switzerland

1995 -- Edward B. Lewis, United States; Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, Germany; Eric F. Wieschaus, United States

1994 -- Alfred G. Gilman, United States; Martin Rodbell, United States

1993 -- Richard J. Roberts, United Kingdom; Phillip A. Sharp, United States

1992 -- Edmond H. Fischer, Switzerland and United States; Edwin G. Krebs, United States

1991 -- Erwin Neher, Germany; Bert Sakmann, Germany

1990 -- Joseph E. Murray, United States; E. Donnall Thomas, United States

1989 -- J. Michael Bishop, United States; Harold E. Varmus, United States

1988 -- James W. Black, United Kingdom; Gertrude B. Elion, United States; George H. Hitchings, United States

1987 -- Susumu Tonegawa, Japan

1986 -- Stanley Cohen, United States; Rita Levi-Montalcini, Italy and United States

1985 -- Michael S. Brown, United States; Joseph L. Goldstein, United States

1984 -- Niels K. Jerne, Denmark; Georges J.F. Kohler, Germany; Cesar Milstein, Argentina and United Kingdom

1983 -- Barbara McClintock, United States

1982 -- Sune K. Bergstrom, Sweden; Bengt I. Samuelsson, Sweden; John R. Vane, United Kingdom

1981 -- Roger W. Sperry, United States; David H. Hubel, United States; Torsten N. Wiesel, Sweden

1980 -- Baruj Benacerraf, United States; Jean Dausset, France; George D. Snell, United States

1979 -- Allan M. Cormack, United States; Godfrey N. Hounsfield, United Kingdom

1978 -- Werner Arber, Switzerland; Daniel Nathans, United States; Hamilton O. Smith, United States

1977 -- Roger Guillemin, United States; Andrew V. Schally, United States; Rosalyn Yalow, United States

1976 -- Baruch S. Blumberg, United States; D. Carleton Gajdusek, United States

1975 -- David Baltimore, United States; Renato Dulbecco, United States; Howard M. Temin, United States

1974 -- Albert Claude, Belgium; Christian de Duve, Belgium; George E. Palade, United States

1973 -- Karl von Frisch, Germany; Konrad Lorenz, Austria; Nikolaas Tinbergen, United Kingdom

1972 -- Gerald M. Edelman, United States; Rodney R. Porter, United Kingdom

1971 -- Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., United States

1970 -- Bernard Katz, United Kingdom; Ulf von Euler, Sweden; Julius Axelrod, United States

1969 -- Max Delbruck, United States; Alfred D. Hershey, United States; Salvador E. Luria, United States

1968 -- Robert W. Holley, United States; H. Gobind Khorana, United States; Marshall W. Nirenberg, United States

1967 -- Ragnar Granit, Sweden; Haldan K. Hartline, United States; George Wald, United States

1966 -- Peyton Rous, United States; Charles B. Huggins, United States

1965 -- Francois Jacob, France; Andre Lwoff, France; Jacques Monod, France

1964 -- Konrad Bloch, United States; Feodor Lynen, Germany

1963 -- John Eccles, Australia; Alan L. Hodgkin, United Kingdom; Andrew F. Huxley, United Kingdom

1962 -- Francis Crick, United Kingdom; James Watson, United States; Maurice Wilkins, United Kingdom and New Zealand

1961 -- Georg von Bekesy, United States

1960 -- Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Australia; Peter Medawar, United Kingdom

1959 -- Severo Ochoa, United States; Arthur Kornberg, United States

1958 -- George Beadle, United States; Edward Tatum, United States; Joshua Lederberg, United States

1957 -- Daniel Bovet, Italy

1956 -- Andre F. Cournand, United States; Werner Forssmann, Germany; Dickinson W. Richards, United States

1955 -- Hugo Theorell, Sweden

1954 -- John F. Enders, United States; Thomas H. Weller, United States; Frederick C. Robbins, United States

1953 -- Hans Krebs, United Kingdom; Fritz Lipmann, United States

1952 -- Selman A. Waksman, United States

1951 -- Max Theiler, South Africa

1950 -- Edward C. Kendall, United States; Tadeus Reichstein, Switzerland; Philip S. Hench, United States

1949 -- Walter Hess, Switzerland; Egas Moniz, Portugal

1948 -- Paul Mueller, Switzerland

1947 -- Carl Cori, United States; Gerty Cori, United States; Bernardo Houssay, Argentina

1946 -- Hermann J. Muller, United States

1945 -- Alexander Fleming, United Kingdom; Ernst B. Chain, United Kingdom; Howard Florey, Australia

1944 -- Joseph Erlanger, United States; Herbert S. Gasser, United States

1943 -- Henrik Dam, Denmark; Edward A. Doisy, United States

1942 -- No prize awarded

1941 -- No prize awarded

1940 -- No prize awarded

1939 -- Gerhard Domagk, Germany

1938 -- Corneille Heymans, Belgium

1937 -- Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Hungary

1936 -- Henry Dale, United Kingdom; Otto Loewi, Austria

1935 -- Hans Spemann, Germany

1934 -- George H. Whipple, United States; George R. Minot, United States; William P. Murphy, United States

1933 -- Thomas H. Morgan, United States

1932 -- Charles Sherrington, United Kingdom; Edgar Adrian, United Kingdom

1931 -- Otto Warburg, Germany

1930 -- Karl Landsteiner, Austria

1929 -- Christiaan Eijkman, Netherlands; Frederick Hopkins, United Kingdom

1928 -- Charles Nicolle, France

1927 -- Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Austria

1926 -- Johannes Fibiger, Denmark

1925 -- No prize awarded

1924 -- Willem Einthoven, Netherlands

1923 -- Frederick G. Banting, Canada; John Macleod, Canada

1922 -- Archibald V. Hill, United Kingdom; Otto Meyerhof, Germany

1921 -- No prize awarded

1920 -- August Krogh, Denmark

1919 -- Jules Bordet, Belgium

1918 -- No prize awarded

1917 -- No prize awarded

1916 -- No prize awarded

1915 -- No prize awarded

1914 -- Robert Barany, Austria

1913 -- Charles Richet, France

1912 -- Alexis Carrel, France

1911 -- Allvar Gullstrand, Sweden

1910 -- Albrecht Kossel, Germany

1909 -- Theodor Kocher, Switzerland

1908 -- Ilya Mechnikov, Russia; Paul Ehrlich, Germany

1907 -- Alphonse Laveran, France

1906 -- Camillo Golgi, Italy; Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Spain

1905 -- Robert Koch, Germany

1904 -- Ivan Pavlov, Russia

1903 -- Niels Ryberg Finsen, Denmark

1902 -- Ronald Ross, United Kingdom

1901 -- Emil von Behring, Germany

UPI - United Press International, Inc.

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