List of Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winners

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STOCKHOLM, Sweden, Oct. 3 (UPI) — List of Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine winners:

2011 — Bruce A. Beutler, United States; Jules A. Hoffman, Luxembourg; Ralph M. Steinman, Canada

2010 — Robert Edwards, Great Britain

2009 — Elizabeth H. Blackburn, United States; Carol W. Greider, United States; Jack W. Szostak, United States

2008 — Harald zur Hausen, Germany; Francoise Barre-Sinoussi, France; Luc Montagnier, France

2007 — Mario R. Capecchi, United States; Martin J. Evans, United Kingdom; Oliver Smithies, United States

2006 — Andrew Z. Fire, United States; Craig C. Mello, United States

2005 — Barry J. Marshall, Australia; J. Robin Warren, Australia

2004 — Richard Axel, United States; Linda B. Buck, United States

2003 — Paul C. Lauterbur, United States; Peter Mansfield, United Kingdom

2002 — Sydney Brenner, United Kingdom; H. Robert Horvitz, United States; John E. Sulston, United Kingdom

2001 — Leland H. Hartwell, United States; Tim Hunt, United Kingdom; Paul Nurse, United Kingdom

2000 — Arvid Carlsson, Sweden; Paul Greengard, United States; Eric R. Kandel, United States

1999 — Gunter Blobel, United States

1998 — Robert F. Furchgott, United States; Louis J. Ignarro, United States; Ferid Murad, United States

1997 — Stanley B. Prusiner, United States

1996 — Peter C. Doherty, Australia; Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Switzerland

1995 — Edward B. Lewis, United States; Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, Germany; Eric F. Wieschaus, United States

1994 — Alfred G. Gilman, United States; Martin Rodbell, United States

1993 — Richard J. Roberts, United Kingdom; Phillip A. Sharp, United States

1992 — Edmond H. Fischer, Switzerland and United States; Edwin G. Krebs, United States

1991 — Erwin Neher, Germany; Bert Sakmann, Germany

1990 — Joseph E. Murray, United States; E. Donnall Thomas, United States

1989 — J. Michael Bishop, United States; Harold E. Varmus, United States

1988 — James W. Black, United Kingdom; Gertrude B. Elion, United States; George H. Hitchings, United States

1987 — Susumu Tonegawa, Japan

1986 — Stanley Cohen, United States; Rita Levi-Montalcini, Italy and United States

1985 — Michael S. Brown, United States; Joseph L. Goldstein, United States

1984 — Niels K. Jerne, Denmark; Georges J.F. Kohler, Germany; Cesar Milstein, Argentina and United Kingdom

1983 — Barbara McClintock, United States

1982 — Sune K. Bergstrom, Sweden; Bengt I. Samuelsson, Sweden; John R. Vane, United Kingdom

1981 — Roger W. Sperry, United States; David H. Hubel, United States; Torsten N. Wiesel, Sweden

1980 — Baruj Benacerraf, United States; Jean Dausset, France; George D. Snell, United States

1979 — Allan M. Cormack, United States; Godfrey N. Hounsfield, United Kingdom

1978 — Werner Arber, Switzerland; Daniel Nathans, United States; Hamilton O. Smith, United States

1977 — Roger Guillemin, United States; Andrew V. Schally, United States; Rosalyn Yalow, United States

1976 — Baruch S. Blumberg, United States; D. Carleton Gajdusek, United States

1975 — David Baltimore, United States; Renato Dulbecco, United States; Howard M. Temin, United States

1974 — Albert Claude, Belgium; Christian de Duve, Belgium; George E. Palade, United States

1973 — Karl von Frisch, Germany; Konrad Lorenz, Austria; Nikolaas Tinbergen, United Kingdom

1972 — Gerald M. Edelman, United States; Rodney R. Porter, United Kingdom

1971 — Earl W. Sutherland, Jr., United States

1970 — Bernard Katz, United Kingdom; Ulf von Euler, Sweden; Julius Axelrod, United States

1969 — Max Delbruck, United States; Alfred D. Hershey, United States; Salvador E. Luria, United States

1968 — Robert W. Holley, United States; H. Gobind Khorana, United States; Marshall W. Nirenberg, United States

1967 — Ragnar Granit, Sweden; Haldan K. Hartline, United States; George Wald, United States

1966 — Peyton Rous, United States; Charles B. Huggins, United States

1965 — Francois Jacob, France; Andre Lwoff, France; Jacques Monod, France

1964 — Konrad Bloch, United States; Feodor Lynen, Germany

1963 — John Eccles, Australia; Alan L. Hodgkin, United Kingdom; Andrew F. Huxley, United Kingdom

1962 — Francis Crick, United Kingdom; James Watson, United States; Maurice Wilkins, United Kingdom and New Zealand

1961 — Georg von Bekesy, United States

1960 — Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Australia; Peter Medawar, United Kingdom

1959 — Severo Ochoa, United States; Arthur Kornberg, United States

1958 — George Beadle, United States; Edward Tatum, United States; Joshua Lederberg, United States

1957 — Daniel Bovet, Italy

1956 — Andre F. Cournand, United States; Werner Forssmann, Germany; Dickinson W. Richards, United States

1955 — Hugo Theorell, Sweden

1954 — John F. Enders, United States; Thomas H. Weller, United States; Frederick C. Robbins, United States

1953 — Hans Krebs, United Kingdom; Fritz Lipmann, United States

1952 — Selman A. Waksman, United States

1951 — Max Theiler, South Africa

1950 — Edward C. Kendall, United States; Tadeus Reichstein, Switzerland; Philip S. Hench, United States

1949 — Walter Hess, Switzerland; Egas Moniz, Portugal

1948 — Paul Mueller, Switzerland

1947 — Carl Cori, United States; Gerty Cori, United States; Bernardo Houssay, Argentina

1946 — Hermann J. Muller, United States

1945 — Alexander Fleming, United Kingdom; Ernst B. Chain, United Kingdom; Howard Florey, Australia

1944 — Joseph Erlanger, United States; Herbert S. Gasser, United States

1943 — Henrik Dam, Denmark; Edward A. Doisy, United States

1942 — No prize awarded

1941 — No prize awarded

1940 — No prize awarded

1939 — Gerhard Domagk, Germany

1938 — Corneille Heymans, Belgium

1937 — Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Hungary

1936 — Henry Dale, United Kingdom; Otto Loewi, Austria

1935 — Hans Spemann, Germany

1934 — George H. Whipple, United States; George R. Minot, United States; William P. Murphy, United States

1933 — Thomas H. Morgan, United States

1932 — Charles Sherrington, United Kingdom; Edgar Adrian, United Kingdom

1931 — Otto Warburg, Germany

1930 — Karl Landsteiner, Austria

1929 — Christiaan Eijkman, Netherlands; Frederick Hopkins, United Kingdom

1928 — Charles Nicolle, France

1927 — Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Austria

1926 — Johannes Fibiger, Denmark

1925 — No prize awarded

1924 — Willem Einthoven, Netherlands

1923 — Frederick G. Banting, Canada; John Macleod, Canada

1922 — Archibald V. Hill, United Kingdom; Otto Meyerhof, Germany

1921 — No prize awarded

1920 — August Krogh, Denmark

1919 — Jules Bordet, Belgium

1918 — No prize awarded

1917 — No prize awarded

1916 — No prize awarded

1915 — No prize awarded

1914 — Robert Barany, Austria

1913 — Charles Richet, France

1912 — Alexis Carrel, France

1911 — Allvar Gullstrand, Sweden

1910 — Albrecht Kossel, Germany

1909 — Theodor Kocher, Switzerland

1908 — Ilya Mechnikov, Russia; Paul Ehrlich, Germany

1907 — Alphonse Laveran, France

1906 — Camillo Golgi, Italy; Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Spain

1905 — Robert Koch, Germany

1904 — Ivan Pavlov, Russia

1903 — Niels Ryberg Finsen, Denmark

1902 — Ronald Ross, United Kingdom

1901 — Emil von Behring, Germany

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