The difficulty of balancing privacy issues with the need to protect the public has been highlighted by a new Georgia law.
Beginning on January 1st 2009, convicted sex offenders in the state are required to submit their internet passwords, screen names and email addresses to law enforcement officials.
The rule will make it easier for police to track the online activities of sex offenders and make sure they are not behaving inappropriately, said Georgia state senator Cecil Stanton, who authored the bill.
But others question if this is one measure too far. "There’s certainly a privacy concern. This essentially will give law enforcement the ability to read emails between family members, between employers," Sara Totonchi of Southern Center for Human Rights told the Associated Press.
According to the AP, at least 15 states have laws that obligate sex offenders to turn over email addresses and user names to the police, but Georgia and Utah are the only places where passwords are also included.
One criticism that has been leveled at such laws is that they are too broad, as those who have been arrested for crimes including public nudity or underage consensual sex may still be classified as sex offenders.
Can economic recovery be achieved while the government is attempting to enact social and economic changes?
That is the question posed by 20/20 co-anchor John Stossel, writing on the Constitution Party’s website to raise questions about the effectiveness of President-elect Barack Obama’s stimulus plans.
Stossel raises doubts about the ability of the government to "impose a utopian vision based on the belief that an economy is a thing to be planned from above."
Instead, he describes an economy and a society as being made up of different individuals striving to meet their goals, which cannot be controlled by a larger force.
Stossel points to FDR as an example of another president who opted to reform central tenets of the economy during a time of economic challenge, saying that the result was "long years of depression and deprivation."
During periods in which the government takes a strong role in the economy, investors may back off from risk due to uncertainty about having their efforts undermined, he says.
"Grand interventionist reforms go in precisely the wrong direction," Stossel concludes.
His comments come as some analysts have predicted the cost of Obama’s stimulus package could reach $1 trillion.
Fosamax, which is commonly prescribed to treat osteoporosis, may raise a person’s risk of developing cancer of the esophagus, according to an FDA warning.
More research should be done to explore a potential connection between bisphosphonate medications and cancer, the FDA’s Diane Wysowski wrote in a letter published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Fosamax is manufactured by Merck and is used to increase bone mass among patients who have osteoarthritis.
According to Wysowski, a total of 23 people taking Fosamax in the U.S. have developed esophageal tumors and eight have died since the drug hit the market in 1995. Similar numbers have been noted in Europe and Japan.
Meanwhile, a separate study published in the Journal of the American Dental Association this week linked bisphosphonates to osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ).
Those with ONJ suffer from pain, swelling, infection, loose teeth and exposed bone. Dr. Parish Sedghizadeh of the University of Southern California School of Dentistry said that the condition is much more common than was previously thought among people taking drugs similar to Fosamax.
It is easy to think of 2008 as a terrible year for your finances, but there is a silver lining – lessons learned.
Writing in the Wall Street Journal, Brett Arends suggests that the past year has caused people to realize that they need to take control of their own wealth, rather than relying on so-called experts.
Investors should always understand the systems in which they are investing their funds, he argues, pointing out that even the CEOs of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac seemed to not completely comprehend their money-making strategies.
"Simple stocks, like Amazon or Anheuser-Busch, rarely embarrass you in this way," Arends writes.
He also points out that 2008 was another year in which some of the most popular investment sectors fell apart, which underscores the principle of taking charge of your own finances – and having the guts to stray from the pack.
Arends suggests that another lesson from the past year is that saving for the future is a better financial strategy than spending beyond your means in the present – something that may sound obvious but has largely been ignored by many Americans for the past several years.
We probably don’t have long to wait to see if 2008’s lessons have an impact on the coming year.
Governor Janet Napolitano will soon be stepping into a lead role with the Homeland Security Department, which has caused various civil liberties groups to examine her previous record on the balance between privacy and security.
For example, Alessandra Soler Meetze of Arizona’s American Civil Liberties Union chapter has raised concerns about Napolitano’s implementation of security technology, USA Today reports.
"She sees technology as the panacea of all our law enforcement problems and immigration issues. It’s like she’s embracing these technologies without taking the time to appreciate the privacy implications," she told the news provider.
In the six years that Napolitano has been governor of Arizona, she has encouraged the use of cameras to scan the license plates of moving cars, signed a bill to collect DNA samples from anyone arrested for certain crimes and proposed an optional ID – with a radio-frequency chip – for citizens who reside in the state.
The governor said the ID cards, which could be easily scanned by law enforcement officials, would help speed up border crossings.
Arizona John Birch Society president Bryan Turner suggested that the optional cards could lead to situations in which anyone who didn’t have one could be suspected of being illegal.
Ahead of the finalization of President-elect Barack Obama’s proposed economic stimulus bill, a number of groups have been lobbying for a share of the money.
According to an article in USA Today, the high level of interest in bailout funds could create some difficulties for the incoming administration, which has promised there will be no waste included in any stimulus package.
Groups including Taxpayers for Common Sense have questioned how this aim could possibly be achieved with so many groups jockeying for funds.
"When Congress has got a pocketful of walking around money, there’s a lot of people who are trying to take them for a ride," Steve Ellis of Taxpayers for Common Sense told the news provider.
"If you’re a lobbyist in town and you’re not trying to get a piece of the bailout, you should be fired."
Among those looking for a role in the stimulus plan are the American Apparel and Footwear Association, the Natural Resource Defense Council and the National Air Transport Association.
Each group claims that their contribution could help create or protect jobs, boost consumer spending or otherwise benefit the economy as a whole.
Obama has forecast that the entire stimulus plan could cost as much as $775 billion.
A diet high in inorganic phosphates – commonly found in processed food – can contribute to the risk of lung cancer among those already predisposed, as well as accelerating tumor growth, new research suggests.
Scientists at Seoul National University say that inorganic phosphates have a strong connection to the development of lung cancer among rodents and that limiting these additives can help treat the disease when it is already present.
In the past few decades, inorganic phosphates have been increasingly added to a number of processed foods, such as meats, cheeses, beverages and baked goods, explained lead researcher Myung-Haing Cho.
"As a result, depending on individual food choices, phosphorous intake could be increased by as much as 1,000 mg per day," he said, adding that in 1990s this level hovered around 470 mg per day.
Phosphates are usually added to food to boost water retention and improve texture.
The findings, which appear in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, indicated that rats with lung cancer who consumed more phosphates had larger and further progressed tumors.
Earlier this year, a study published in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology linked high levels of phosphates in the blood with cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis.
Gold prices moved past $870 per ounce in Friday trading after a week of steady rises.
Tensions in the Middle East and on the Indian-Pakistani border helped to boost the price of the precious metal – widely viewed as a safe haven investment – during an otherwise quiet week of trading.
Spot prices for February rose quickly from $850 to $870 over the course of Friday afternoon.
Meanwhile, concerns for the underlying strength of the U.S. economy – hit hard by growing unemployment and historically weak consumer demand – have led to renewed speculation over the future price of gold.
"Gold is solid as the dollar is under pressure because of a deepening U.S. recession and the Fed policy of keeping interest rates near zero," analyst Tatsuo Kageyama was reported as telling Bloomberg.
Some experts predict prices might rise as high as $2000 in the next year to 18 months in response to the global financial crisis and the possible worsening of relations in international trouble spots.
The resurgence of fighting between Hamas and Israel on Wednesday reinvigorated concern over Middle Eastern stability following the unraveling of a six-month ceasefire between the two sides earlier in the month.
Federal agencies released a revised guide this week designed to tackle the ongoing issue of identity fraud.
The brochure – entitled You Have the Power to Stop Identity Theft – contains a number of steps individuals can take to reduce the chances of an invasion of privacy and possible financial loss.
For example, people should never disclose their Social Security number or other potential password over the phone or internet unless they initiated the contact, the guidance states.
"If you are unsure whether a contact is legitimate, go to the company’s website by typing in the site address or using a page you have previously bookmarked, instead of using a link provided by the email," the authorities advise in a reference to so-called phishing attacks.
If you do fall victim to an identity fraudster, contact your financial institution so that a note can be placed on your file. The guidance also encourages you to inform the Federal Trade Commission of any attempted attack.
As many as nine million Americans are the subject of identity fraud each year, according to FTC estimates.
Diet Coke may contain ingredients such as the artificial sweetener aspartame and phosphoric acid, but the Food and Drug Administration is more concerned about its nutritional claims.
The FDA has sent a letter warning the soft drinks manufacturer that its Diet Coke Plus product does not have the appropriate ingredients to warrant the word "plus."
According to the agency’s standards, foods and drinks that carry the "plus" label should contain at least 10 percent more nutrients than similar items on the market. The FDA also said that adding vitamins and minerals to "snack foods" is not appropriate.
Coca-Cola introduced Diet Coke Plus in March 2007. It describes the drink as having extra vitamins and minerals, including vitamin B, zinc and magnesium, according to the Associated Press.
The AP suggests that the move could be part of a larger plan by the FDA to crack down on food manufacturers that exaggerate health claims on their labels.
However, some natural foods advocates have questioned why the agency has been focusing on nutritional claims rather than the testing and regulation of artificial ingredients.
President-elect Barack Obama has promised a stimulus plan for the country that could create or save millions of jobs – but will it work?
Spending is a big part of the plan. Early in the new year, Congress could receive a request to spend between $675 billion and $775 billion in the next two years, Fox News reports. Around $350 billion could be directed at creating infrastructure projects.
Former director of the Congressional Budget Office Douglas Holtz-Eakin told the news provider that although the plan "sounds great on paper" it may be more difficult to achieve.
Part of the problem may be the timing. As the U.S. is already about one year into a recession, by the time the money works its way through the system and new jobs are created, it may no longer be necessary.
"Even if we have a pretty prolonged downturn, it could be the case that the recession is over by the time a lot of this money gets spent," Holtz-Eakin said.
Instead, he suggested that the government could help stimulate spending by suspending Social Security taxes for a year.
Holtz-Eakin, who advised Senator John McCain during his campaign, also said he supports the senator’s idea of purchasing and refinancing bad mortgage debt.
The country is likely to receive more details of the stimulus package when Obama takes office on January 20th.
Researchers studying fruit juice beverages from 15 different countries have uncovered traces of pesticides in many products, it has emerged.
Scientists at the University of Jaen in Spain looked at more than 100 drinks purchased in the U.S., Russia, Italy, Germany France, the UK and other countries, the Sunday Times of London reports.
In particular, the UK was discovered to have fruit juices with the highest pesticide levels – approximately 34 times greater than what is considered acceptable in drinking water among EU nations.
Peter Melchett of the Soil Association told the news provider that "there needs to be more work on the cumulative effect of residues and this report provides further evidence of a laissez-faire approach."
In the U.S. the use of – and disposal of – pesticides has also been a hot-button issue for a number of years.
ABC News reports that Earthjustice has filed four federal lawsuits against the Environmental Protection Agency that focus on pesticide use.
The public interest law firm has raised concerns about pesticide contamination in groundwater being linked to cancer.
"There are several pesticides on the market that pose extreme risks to human health through the water, air and food," commented Joshua Osborne-Klein, an attorney for the Earthjustice. "Our lawsuits say that the EPA has not fully assessed these risks."
A new flu strain that is spreading across the U.S. does not respond to the medication Tamiflu, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The CDC warned that this year’s most commonly noted flu bug, found in 12 states so far, is the one that is resistant to Tamiflu.
There are three different strains of flu that can affect humans: the A H3N2 strain, a type B strain and the resistant A H1N1 strain.
Still, Tamiflu is one of the most popular anti-flu drugs on the market, possibly because it can be administered to children in pill form.
But some have raised concerns about the medication’s safety. In 2005 and 2006, a number of cases – mainly out of Japan – reported that children and young people were experiencing mental health side effects after taking the drug.
This caused manufacturer Roche to add a warning to its label stating that "people with the flu, particularly children, may be at increased risk of self-injury and confusion shortly after taking Tamiflu and should be closely monitored for signs of unusual behavior."
After receiving billions of dollars in taxpayer bailout money, banks are unable to describe how they have used the funds, it has emerged.
An Associated Press investigation asked 21 financial institutions that have accepted at least $1 billion from the government how they have spent the money and what their plans are for any remaining cash.
According to the AP, not a single bank gave specific responses to the queries, raising questions about who is monitoring the banks’ use of bailout funds.
Some lawmakers have indicated that they intend to follow up on where the money has been used, but taxpayers may see it as a case of too little, too late.
The news comes after the Treasury Department announced that it has used up $350 billion out of the total amount included in the Troubled Asset Relief Program so far but will likely not touch the rest until January.
Meanwhile, a separate report from the Associated Press reveals that many executives at financial institutions receiving bailout money received salaries, bonuses and benefits that – if taken as a whole – nearly equal the amount the banks have accepted from TARP.
When analyzing the effects of potentially hormone-disrupting chemicals, regulators should focus on the cumulative effects of exposure, a panel has claimed.
The National Research Council was specifically commenting on the Environmental Protection Agency’s attitude toward phthalates, which are added to plastic toys to make them flexible.
Animal studies involving these chemicals have indicated that exposure over time can disrupt the male reproductive system and affect testosterone levels, according to the council.
It suggested that the EPA should change its focus from analyzing these chemicals individually to looking at how people are affected when exposed to numerous toxins from food additives, cosmetics, toys, household cleaners and other products.
"If we don’t do this as a cumulative risk assessment focused on these adverse effects, we’re going to be underestimating risks," said panel chairwoman Deborah Cory-Slechta of the University of Rochester, according to Reuters.
The government has already taken steps to ban phthalates from children’s products, beginning February 10, 2009, although stores will be permitted to sell toys that contain the chemicals if they were manufactured before that date.
Phthalates are already prohibited in cosmetics and toys in the European Union.
This week, the Federal Reserve approved new regulations for the credit card industry which are aimed at protecting consumers.
The rules, which are set to go into effect in mid-2010, prohibit credit card providers from engaging in practices such as applying all of a cardholder’s payment to the balance with the lowest interest rate.
They also insist that issuers give customers 45 days’ notice before changing the terms of their credit card agreement, among other limits on industry behavior.
However, although consumers may cheer the new regulations, some industry experts fear they will actually have a negative effect on the economy.
Banking analyst Meredith Whitney raised concerns that the move will inhibit consumer spending, reduce the ability of lenders to offer credit and cause them to tighten their lending criteria, according to Reuters.
"This [credit] line reduction will strain credit quality not just for credit card loans but for all consumer loans," she said.
Whitney added that many credit card companies have already been forced to lower credit limits and cancel customers’ accounts, in order to protect themselves from risk.
The holiday season should be a time for relaxation, but for people in the hospital – or their families and friends – the period can be fraught with chaos, one author claims.
Martine Ehrenclou, who wrote Critical Conditions: The Essential Hospital Guide to Get Your Loved One Out Alive, warns that medical errors can increase in late December and early January.
She places the blame on increased nurse-to-patient ratios, the presence of temporary staff and doctors who have headed out of town.
In order to help prevent disasters, Ehrenclou suggests that each patient request that a friend or family member keep a written record of the names of each healthcare professional involved, as well as diagnosis and treatment information.
She recommends that patients specifically request that physicians and nurses wash their hands and use gloves before touching them, in order to help prevent MRSA and other hospital-acquired infections.
Additionally, before any surgery is carried out, people should make sure that the surgeon marks the particular site where the operation takes place, to be confirmed with the patient’s family.
Statistics cited by the FDA indicate that between 44,000 and 98,000 people die each year from medical errors in hospitals.
As the hearings regarding the impeachment of Illinois governor Rod Blagojevich continue, the state attorney general has denied a request that state taxpayers fund his defense.
Blagojevich’s attorney, Edward Genson, sent a letter to Illinois attorney general Lisa Madigan this week, citing a state law that mandates the attorney general to represent state officials in court, the Associated Press reports.
However, because Madigan had tried to get Blagojevich removed from office she had a conflict of interest and the state should therefore pay for the governor’s lawyer of choice, Genson claimed.
However, Madigan chief of staff Ann Spillane responded in a letter by arguing that the impeachment proceedings are not being held "in court" and therefore the state of Illinois should not have to foot the bill.
She also suggested that because the governor is accused of "corruptly betraying the public trust for personal and financial gain," it did not make sense that taxpayers should pay.
It emerged last week that Blagojevich had been arrested by FBI agents for allegedly trying to sell the senate seat left vacant by Barack Obama.
Today, lawmakers are expected to hear testimony about past investigations of the governor that found evidence of improper contracts, incomplete records and careless use of tax money, according to the AP.
As the government moves toward the adoption of electronic health records, the Department of Health and Human Services has announced new privacy guidelines for the treatment of these records.
The eight principles announced by the HHS this week cover patient access, record correction, transparency, patient choice, limitations regarding the records, data integrity, safeguards and accountability.
Announcing the guidelines, HHS secretary Mike Leavitt stressed the importance of the individual having control over their data and not being forced to accept "privacy risks."
"Consumers need an easy-to-read, standard notice about how their personal health information is protected, confidence that those who misuse information will be held accountable and the ability to choose the degree to which they want to participate in information sharing," he explained.
During his campaign, President-elect Barack Obama promoted the use of electronic health records as having the potential to reduce costs, as well as increasing efficiency and accuracy.
Some groups, such as the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, have raised concerns about the possibility that such records could be misused by insurance companies, lawyers, advertisers and others if they gained access.
The Food and Drug Administration has repeated its opinion that the chemical bisphenol A (BPA) is safe, but also says it will conduct further tests and keep analyzing studies.
BPA has made headlines in recent months, as studies have linked the ingredient, found in some plastic packaging and baby bottles, with a number of health problems – such as heart disease, cancer, hyperactivity and fertility.
However, the FDA has said that it has not found sufficient evidence of the chemical’s harm to prohibit it.
"At this moment, with all information in front of us, we do not believe we have the data on which we could base a regulatory ban," said Laura Tarantino, chief of the FDA’s Office of Food Additive Safety.
At the same time, the agency said it would keep studying the effects of BPA on humans, particularly infants and children.
Mike Schade of the Center for Health, Environment and Justice told the Milwaukee Journal Sentinal that the time to act is now, saying that "while the FDA continues to delay action, infants and women of childbearing age are being exposed" to this "highly potent chemical."
Ponzi schemes – in which existing investors are paid with new investors’ money – have been in the news a lot lately, with the revelation of Bernard Madoff’s fraudulent investment fund sending ripples across the world.
Writing in Time magazine’s Curious Capitalist blog, Justin Fox makes the argument that the government also operates a program that functions on a similar model: Social Security.
"Today’s taxpayers contribute money that is funneled to today’s Social Security recipients – and hope that tomorrow’s taxpayers will put in enough money to fund their retirements," he writes.
He also suggests that the idea of government finance operates on such a principle as well. When people purchase Treasury securities and municipal bonds, they assume that there will be future investors and taxpayers who will support the system, allowing them to profit.
However, Fox finally points out that there is an important difference between Social Security and Madoff’s Ponzi scheme.
The former does not make any attempt to disguise how it works, while the latter involved fraudulent activities in which investors were kept in the dark about where their money was going – or coming from.
Ponzi schemes are named for New England resident Charles Ponzi, who convinced thousands of people to invest money in postage stamp speculation in the 1920s.